Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a disease that has been known all over the world for its destructive potential. Most often this disease falls in the category of a fatal disease which can commonly affect human and non human primates like chimpanzees and monkeys. This disease was first time recognized in 1976 after which it has been sporadically appearing in various parts of the world.
Causes of Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever
Basically the Ebola hemorrhagic fever disease is caused by a virus named Ebola and the first case of this infection was identified in the Democratic Republic of the Congo which is located in Africa. This virus falls in the category of RNA virus family which are known as Filoviriade. Ebola virus has 5 identified sub-types in which four are responsible for causing infection in humans which are Ebola-Sudan, Ebola-Ivory Coast, Ebola-Zaire, and Ebola-Bundibugyo. The fifth virus causes disease in non human primates.
Signs and Symptoms of Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever
After infection of the virus the incubation period starts, which may last up to 1 week. In this period patients may suffer following symptoms:
Chills and fever
Vomiting Sore throat
Some of the late symptoms of the disease are depression, bleeding from nose, ear, mouth, rectum and eyes, swelling of the eyes, pain in the skin, swelling of genital organs, blood containing rashes all over the body and the roof of the mouth looks red as well. In severe cases patients may also suffer shock, coma and disseminated intravascular coagulation.
The most common tests performed to confirm Ebola hemorrhagic fever are tests of the clotting potential of the blood, electrolytes test, CBC and test to confirm the presence of Ebola virus in the body. The early symptoms of the disease are not specific to the virus and thus identifying this disease at a very early stage is quite difficult. Many laboratory tests have to be performed to confirm the disease in any patient. Malaria test, blood film examination and a blood culture is done to find the presence of these deadly viruses in the body.
At present we do not have any medicine that can completely eradicate this virus from the patient. Patient is hospitalised and kept under the observation where some fluid is given through veins to prevent shock and coma. In case of severe bleeding blood transfusion is given to the patient. The only treatment is supportive therapy in which patient’s oxygen status is measured, blood and electrolytes are balanced and other complicated side infections are being treated.
One must avoid going to the area which have epidemics and to reduce the risk of transmission one can wear masks, gowns, goggles and gloves. In Africa social and natural conditions support the spread of the disease since identifying the reservoir of Ebola virus in the country is very difficult. The patients of Ebola HF should be kept in isolation o stop the spread of the disease in other people.
Life Expectancy In Ebola HF
90% of the patients’ die and the major cause of the death are changes in Blood pressure level due to severe blood loss from the body.